As suggested in the last contribution, the holistic mathematical nature of each of the physical forces is given by the four complex roots of unity.
If we take the first of these roots it is in the form 1/k(1 + i) where k represents the square root of 2, and i the square root of - 1 respectively.
In holistic terms 1 denotes the real manifestation of (unitary) form and i the corresponding imaginary manifestation.
Now it is the very nature of light that it can reveal itself - phenomenally - in either wave or particle form.
So when for example the wave aspect is manifest in experience as real, then the corresponding particle aspect remains imaginary; likewise when the particle aspect is manifest as real, then the wave aspect is imaginary.
So both wave and particle aspects of light keep switching as between a real and imaginary identity depending on which one manifests itself (according to a chosen observational context).
However what is fascinating about the complex roots of unity is that they can be equally shown (in geometrical terms) to represent null lines with magnitude = 0.
Thus we have an equally important definition of light as pure emptiness (which in dynamic terms represents mere potential for existence).
As is well known in terms of its own frame of reference, light does not travel in finite time and remains continually in the present moment.
Furthermore, these two interpretations of light - both in terms of complex form and simple emptiness respectively - are interdependent. In other words the actualisation of light as form has no meaning in abstraction from equal appreciation of light as mere empty potential for existence.
Finally the presence of the square root of 2 in the root suggests that irrational (i.e. paradoxical) understanding is necessary to appreciate the nature of light.
The square root of 2 symbolises above all else what is irrational (in algebraic terms). And the appreciation of the wave/particle duality of light requires the paradoxical appreciation of its complementary nature.
What is truly remarkable is that we can then in a holistic mathematical manner interpret the qualitative nature of the other physical forces in like manner.
As we have seen the relationship of electromagnetic energy (of which light is a key manifestation) to gravity is that of real to imaginary.
Therefore if 1/k(1 + i) is the formulation given to the electromagnetic force, then
1/k(- 1 + i) is the corresponding formulation - in relative terms - of the gravitational force. So once again it can manifest itself in either wave or particle form with an equally important formless i.e. empty null identity as mere potential for existence of gravity.
Then the electroweak force will be expressed - relatively - as the negative of the electromagnetic i.e. 1/k(-1 - i) and the strong as the negative of the gravitational i.e. 1/k(1 - i).
So the holistic mathematical formulation clarifies the exact nature of the forces in qualitative terms (and their corresponding relationship to each other).
It also strongly suggests how they are unified (through their null identities).
However more about this anon!